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Wednesday, 12 August 2015

Keyword Lists

Keyword lists are the Simplest form of alphabetical controlled vocabulary. Often they consist of nothing more than a list of 'approved terms'; sometimes they include synonyms. They are simple and cheap form of terminology to develop and use, but are very limited in their usefulness, and applicable only to small files and unsophisticated users.

Perceptions of Cataloguing and Resource Description


Library, print, complex, legalistic, boring, unhelpful, obsessive, old-fashioned, centralised

Resource Description:

Web, digital, simple, pragmatic, interesting, useful, relevant, modern, local

Set of Aims for Catalogues of Printed Libraries

Location - identifying where particular resources are to be found

Collocation - bringing associated works (e.g. by the same author, or on the same subject, or in a series of books or reports) together

Information - providing directly some needed information, e.g. a full bibliographic reference, the full name of an author, the exact name of a corporate author.

Functions of a Catalogue

1. To allow a user to find a resource, for which they know one or more of author, title or subject

2. To show what resources are available written by particular authors or on specified subjects

3. To help the user choose the best resource for their needs, by edition (date, publisher, etc.) and by character (style, level, etc.)

Friday, 7 August 2015

Open Access Publishing

Metadata Librarian

Metadata Librarian is responsible for original and complex contributed cataloguing in a variety of bibliographic and physical formats, including monographs, serials, print loose-leafs, audiovisual materials, and electronic resources, applying national standards using MARC21, RDA, LC PCC PSs, AACR2, and the Library of Congressional classification system and Subject headings. They also perform name, series, and Subject authority work, and contributes or revises name authority records in the national authority files.

They manage the cataloguing and Metadata team and supervise staff.

The Metadata Librarian is responsible for training department staff and serve as an expert resource person regarding cataloguing and Metadata within the department. They also maintain of and engagement with national and international trends and developments in cataloguing and Metadata standards, bibliographic and authority control, and knowledge management.

Institutional Repository Software IRS

What do we know about ' Institutional Repository Software?'

Well, if you were to perform a search query using natural language syntax, different results spring up with different meanings. For instance, click on the link "free institutional repository software" you will discover that these terms are not clearly defined nor easily defined for those of us who want to know a lot more information.

My understanding of institutional repository software or IRS for short, sums up what may constitute as IRS for example, BRICKS (software), DSpace, EPrints, Greenstone (software), Inventio, Islanora, Museolog, Omeka, OPUS (software), Refbase, RefDB, SobekCM, and Goobi; Digital Commons, Grid-Enabled, SimpleDL and VITAL (software).

All these different types of IRS software do not tell me what IRS actually does.

It may imply that the above number of software packages are open source used for running a repository.

Wednesday, 5 August 2015

Resource Description Access (RDA)

Drops the 'cataloguing' terminology

Based on FRBR/FRAD and on RDBMS structures

Builds on AACR2 principles

Chapters for types of material dropped, focus on content rather than form

Catalogue records need not be changed

MARC21 format will be modified

For example:

AACR2 25.8A - more detailed

Use the collective title Works for item that consists of, or purports to be, the complete works of a person

AACR2 1.2B1

Transcribe the edition statement as found on the item. Use abbreviations as instructed in appendix B and numerals as instructed in appendix C

RDA - less standardised

Record the conventional collective title Works as the preferred title for a compilation of works that consists of, or purports to be, the complete works of a person family or corporate body


Transcribe an edition statement as it appears on the source of information

RDA provides a more flexible framework for resource Description and access, and make bibliographic information accessible on the web.

Can be embedded within Dublin Core (RDA element set)
Intended to be useful outside library community
Many local formats
Often based on Dublin Core
Simplest forms of AACR2
May emphasise aspects of local importance
Be adapted for a particular format

Information Architecture

Information Architecture (IA) collectively describes how digital information is organised and used in a digital environment. The use of the metaphor 'architecture' explains many approaches to organising information in ways that makes it usable .

The impact of digital information much depends on how we organise and use it defines the best of digital technology.

Digital Libraries

The perceptions of a digital library throws up, is a place physically devoid of printed materials only occupied by streams of networked computing terminals. When in reality, very few libraries totally consume the concept of a digital library in its entirety. The realities of libraries provide a mixture of digital and non digital resources and services.

The terms 'digital library', ' virtual library' misleading as they present a perception of physical space being minimised which is not the case in today's libraries. Most libraries today are hybrid libraries which intersect between printed and electronic resources in this information age we currently reside in.

However, recently libraries are attempting to digitise whole collections on the premise of providing full access to these non physical items.

Subject Headings

Subject headings are lists of terms - often quite lengthy to represent complex concepts - which are used for indexing for retrieval, and sometimes browsing. They will generally include synonyms, and sometimes hierarchical and 'SEE ALSO' relations. Complex subject heading lists can be very similar to thesauri. Whereas, the simpler forms are little more than lists of keywords. They are most commonly used in situations where only one heading, or only a few, are added to each record, e.g. library databases and bibliographies.

The most widely known and widely used terminology of this sort is the Library of Congress Subject Heading (LCSH) it provides subject indexing in many library databases, and increasingly in digital environments.



Semantic Web

The idea that information on the web may be structured and encoded in a way that it's content and meaning is explicit and coherent is understood by search engines and other software agents.


The term 'ontology' is very strange word to describe or understand that would help one connect. My understanding of the term ontology depends their relationships with different kinds of things exist, and how they can be described and what entities exist within those relationships.

For example, controlled vocabularies - classification schemes, taxonomies and thesauri in particular - would be regarded as ontologies.

In the context of the semantic web, ontology can loosely describe any vocabulary with some term relations is set in relation to other words in hierarchy, synonyms, associate vocabularies that be retrieved.

Facet Analysis

Facet analysis is a fascinating way of dividing concepts presented in a subject or information domain into consistent sections.

For example, the subject of 'historic buildings' contain facets

PURPOSE (house, church, school),
STYLE (Gothic, classical, Arts and Crafts),
CONSTRUCTION (stone, brick, timber),
AGE (Victorian, Mediaeval)

This style of analysis finds use in the construction of classifications and thesauri, the design of interfaces, the construction of complex search logics, and more.

Controlled Vocabulary

A controlled vocabulary is a list of terms which are to be used for indexing at retrieval; for example, keyword lists, subject headings, classifications, taxonomies, thesauri, authority lists and others. The idea of 'control' is variable according to natural language used. In contrast to this, is an uncontrolled vocabulary where full-text , freely chosen keywords and tags.