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Friday, 31 July 2015



AACR description:

AACR2 rules based on IFLA principles

Based on information in the item, form the title page
Use of outside information such as, dates of author's birth and death; to check the real name of an author using a pen name

AACR2 rules aim at describing documents: succinctly, accurately and consistently, though they are detailed and complex.

Three 'levels of description' allowed
Differ according to how much information is included
First level: Simplest, for small libraries
Second level: intermediate, for most libraries
Third level: complex, for national and research libraries - heavily detailed

First level description includes at least these elements:
# Title
# Statement of responsibility
# Edition
# Type of publication
# Publishing details
# Extent of item
# Notes
# Standard number




Copyright is a strange word in the room, what we really need to understand is the nature of copyright as a property law. Much of what this property law main focus on Creative works more emphasis is placed on the nature of protection and where to find out about it. We need to identify appropriate protection for different aspects of a Creative works. We need to know where to look to find out the details of protection available, and finally, we also need to understand in outline how copyright protection is realised respecting various types of information provision.


Metadata is one of those strange terms to someone has a mysterious fascination unless you are familiar with definition accompanied by what it actually does, it will continue to remain alien to those who encounter this term.

Those of us who have had an opportunity to become familiar with this term, literally, Metadata can be best understood as data being about data described as short, structured and standardised or consistent descriptions of information resources. The idea of Metadata has been around for along time, since the mid-19th century, amongst library cataloguing rules.

Metadata provide short, structured and consistent descriptions of information resources which at best indicate catalogued records. It could be further described as surrogates imitating the actual items used. The main purpose for Metadata is to identify, retrieve, use and manage information resources. It could also be said, digitising information resources into Metadata records makes it easier for retrieval, finding required items by searching or browsing, display, deciding on whether an item is useful; legal status of items; records management or whether it can be shared and exchanged.

Metadata falls into two types: descriptive Metadata and Subject Metadata.

Descriptive Metadata is description of the item itself, it's title, author, date of publication or creation, physical form, etc.

Descriptive Metadata asks lots of questions about the item is:
What is this called?
Who wrote it?
How old is it?
How big is it?
What kind of thing is it
Where is it?

Descriptive Metadata is very detail oriented its not happy just being about content it wants to know what exactly is it unlike subject Metadata who satisfied in telling their story.

Both types of Metadata must conform  to the structured and standardised standards.

Subject Metadata describes the content meaning, describes what the item is about.

Subject Metadata uses controlled terms, classification Codes, subject headings,  or controlled terminology for example, terms captured from titles and abstracts.

Subject Metadata is very intrusive, it wants to know what item is actually about, the content is plays a major role in telling the story of the item.

Metadata standards importantly govern the content and elements of records in how the same information is presented in the same way.

Machine Readable Cataloguing (MARC) is an exchange format for Metadata records created according to the AACR2 and RDA cataloguing codes.

Dublin Core (DC) is another standard of web Metadata format, which comprises of 15 elements or fields such as, title, creator, subject, and format.

Learning Object Metadata (LOM) this standard holds Metadata for educational resources at all levels of granularity.

Text Encoding Initiative ( TEI) is a standard representation of texts in digital form.

Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard ( METS )

International Standard for Archival Description (General) (ISAD  (G)) 

Visual Resources Association ( VRA ) Core

Data Protection

What is the aims of data protection? My believe concerning data protection is to understand the nature and extent of data protection rights and how data protection awareness is applied to other legislation.
Other important questions we need to ask how is does data protection benefits society, how to apply data protection principles to use of information systems, how to apply exemptions to the data protection act.

So what are the data protection principles to apply to data protection:

1. Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully and, in particular, shall not be processed unless - (a) at least one of the conditions in Schedule 2 is met, and (b) in the case of sensitive personal data, at least one of the conditions in Schedule 3 is also met.

2. Personal data shall be obtained only for one or more specified and lawful purposes, and shall not be further processed in any manner incompatible with that purpose or those purposes.

3. Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purpose or purposes for which they are processed.

4. Personal data shall be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date.

5. Personal data processed for any purpose or purposes shall not be kept for longer than is necessary for that purpose or purposes.

6. Personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects under this Act.

7. Appropriate technical and organisational measures shall be taken against unauthorized or unlawful processing of personal data and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, personal data.

8. Personal data shall not be transferred to a country or territory outside the European Economic Area

Information Organisation

One of the fundamental aspects of the information sciences is how we organise large amounts of information and information resources. In reality, Information needs to be classified and labeled is essential to identify what these objects are and how we distinguish known items after they have been classified methodically.

The old tools and techniques are being adapted to the modern information environment. These old tools as we referred to them, for information organisation, are slowly changing the tools challenging long established theories and concepts once considered valid.

The theory of classification and indexing reinforced several main tools used today that has its origins in the nineteenth century.  The were developed to provide bibliographic control of printed materials; to record, identify and make accessible all the intellectual output of humanity, as expressed in recorded knowledge. Digital material, rapidly expanding, are now making these materials more accessible.

Dramatic changes to tools for information organisation, effect how documents are created and disseminated adapted to automated methods to become current tools in Information organisation. 'Information organisation' or 'knowledge organisation'. These terms are treated as synonymous, however we need to remind ourselves about the purpose of why this is being done to understand the structure of knowledge, practically, arranging documents physically on shelves and virtually as digital documents. Questions we need to ask ourselves here is single classification possible? How do we assign objects to categories? How do our mental concepts relate to physical things? How distinct can objects still be given the same name?

What we forget to understand about all organisations of information and knowledge, there is a great deal of theory underlying the foundations of information organisation or knowledge organisation; whether classification schemes for documents, scientific taxonomies of plants, animals, rocks, stars, and so on.

Five theoretical concepts underlying many aspects of information organisation including controlled vocabulary; facet analysis; Metadata; ontology; and semantic web.

Open Access: What is it?

Open Access has become one of these popular buzz words recently, similar to social media, but unlike social media, open access maintains its mystic allure unless you happen to be one of those professionals who actually work in this exciting field we now call 'Open Access'.

So, what is Open Access or OA? Open Access has become the gatekeeper to all research creating knowledge that all hold in high esteem. It means unrestricted online access to research, which is mainly for peer-reviewed academic journals, but now includes other research like theses, book chapters, and monographs.

Open access falls into two types which are accompanied by peculiar sounding names, namely, gratis open access refers to online access free of charge, and libre open access refers to online access free of charge with some user privilege rights or additional usage rights.

Additional usage rights are often granted through various specific known as Creative Commons Licenses.

Gratis open access or OA is simply free online access while libre OA free online access including some additional rights to re-use material.