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Wednesday, 12 August 2015

Keyword Lists

Keyword lists are the Simplest form of alphabetical controlled vocabulary. Often they consist of nothing more than a list of 'approved terms'; sometimes they include synonyms. They are simple and cheap form of terminology to develop and use, but are very limited in their usefulness, and applicable only to small files and unsophisticated users.

Perceptions of Cataloguing and Resource Description


Library, print, complex, legalistic, boring, unhelpful, obsessive, old-fashioned, centralised

Resource Description:

Web, digital, simple, pragmatic, interesting, useful, relevant, modern, local

Set of Aims for Catalogues of Printed Libraries

Location - identifying where particular resources are to be found

Collocation - bringing associated works (e.g. by the same author, or on the same subject, or in a series of books or reports) together

Information - providing directly some needed information, e.g. a full bibliographic reference, the full name of an author, the exact name of a corporate author.

Functions of a Catalogue

1. To allow a user to find a resource, for which they know one or more of author, title or subject

2. To show what resources are available written by particular authors or on specified subjects

3. To help the user choose the best resource for their needs, by edition (date, publisher, etc.) and by character (style, level, etc.)

Friday, 7 August 2015

Open Access Publishing

Metadata Librarian

Metadata Librarian is responsible for original and complex contributed cataloguing in a variety of bibliographic and physical formats, including monographs, serials, print loose-leafs, audiovisual materials, and electronic resources, applying national standards using MARC21, RDA, LC PCC PSs, AACR2, and the Library of Congressional classification system and Subject headings. They also perform name, series, and Subject authority work, and contributes or revises name authority records in the national authority files.

They manage the cataloguing and Metadata team and supervise staff.

The Metadata Librarian is responsible for training department staff and serve as an expert resource person regarding cataloguing and Metadata within the department. They also maintain of and engagement with national and international trends and developments in cataloguing and Metadata standards, bibliographic and authority control, and knowledge management.

Institutional Repository Software IRS

What do we know about ' Institutional Repository Software?'

Well, if you were to perform a search query using natural language syntax, different results spring up with different meanings. For instance, click on the link "free institutional repository software" you will discover that these terms are not clearly defined nor easily defined for those of us who want to know a lot more information.

My understanding of institutional repository software or IRS for short, sums up what may constitute as IRS for example, BRICKS (software), DSpace, EPrints, Greenstone (software), Inventio, Islanora, Museolog, Omeka, OPUS (software), Refbase, RefDB, SobekCM, and Goobi; Digital Commons, Grid-Enabled, SimpleDL and VITAL (software).

All these different types of IRS software do not tell me what IRS actually does.

It may imply that the above number of software packages are open source used for running a repository.

Wednesday, 5 August 2015

Resource Description Access (RDA)

Drops the 'cataloguing' terminology

Based on FRBR/FRAD and on RDBMS structures

Builds on AACR2 principles

Chapters for types of material dropped, focus on content rather than form

Catalogue records need not be changed

MARC21 format will be modified

For example:

AACR2 25.8A - more detailed

Use the collective title Works for item that consists of, or purports to be, the complete works of a person

AACR2 1.2B1

Transcribe the edition statement as found on the item. Use abbreviations as instructed in appendix B and numerals as instructed in appendix C

RDA - less standardised

Record the conventional collective title Works as the preferred title for a compilation of works that consists of, or purports to be, the complete works of a person family or corporate body


Transcribe an edition statement as it appears on the source of information

RDA provides a more flexible framework for resource Description and access, and make bibliographic information accessible on the web.

Can be embedded within Dublin Core (RDA element set)
Intended to be useful outside library community
Many local formats
Often based on Dublin Core
Simplest forms of AACR2
May emphasise aspects of local importance
Be adapted for a particular format

Information Architecture

Information Architecture (IA) collectively describes how digital information is organised and used in a digital environment. The use of the metaphor 'architecture' explains many approaches to organising information in ways that makes it usable .

The impact of digital information much depends on how we organise and use it defines the best of digital technology.

Digital Libraries

The perceptions of a digital library throws up, is a place physically devoid of printed materials only occupied by streams of networked computing terminals. When in reality, very few libraries totally consume the concept of a digital library in its entirety. The realities of libraries provide a mixture of digital and non digital resources and services.

The terms 'digital library', ' virtual library' misleading as they present a perception of physical space being minimised which is not the case in today's libraries. Most libraries today are hybrid libraries which intersect between printed and electronic resources in this information age we currently reside in.

However, recently libraries are attempting to digitise whole collections on the premise of providing full access to these non physical items.

Subject Headings

Subject headings are lists of terms - often quite lengthy to represent complex concepts - which are used for indexing for retrieval, and sometimes browsing. They will generally include synonyms, and sometimes hierarchical and 'SEE ALSO' relations. Complex subject heading lists can be very similar to thesauri. Whereas, the simpler forms are little more than lists of keywords. They are most commonly used in situations where only one heading, or only a few, are added to each record, e.g. library databases and bibliographies.

The most widely known and widely used terminology of this sort is the Library of Congress Subject Heading (LCSH) it provides subject indexing in many library databases, and increasingly in digital environments.



Semantic Web

The idea that information on the web may be structured and encoded in a way that it's content and meaning is explicit and coherent is understood by search engines and other software agents.


The term 'ontology' is very strange word to describe or understand that would help one connect. My understanding of the term ontology depends their relationships with different kinds of things exist, and how they can be described and what entities exist within those relationships.

For example, controlled vocabularies - classification schemes, taxonomies and thesauri in particular - would be regarded as ontologies.

In the context of the semantic web, ontology can loosely describe any vocabulary with some term relations is set in relation to other words in hierarchy, synonyms, associate vocabularies that be retrieved.

Facet Analysis

Facet analysis is a fascinating way of dividing concepts presented in a subject or information domain into consistent sections.

For example, the subject of 'historic buildings' contain facets

PURPOSE (house, church, school),
STYLE (Gothic, classical, Arts and Crafts),
CONSTRUCTION (stone, brick, timber),
AGE (Victorian, Mediaeval)

This style of analysis finds use in the construction of classifications and thesauri, the design of interfaces, the construction of complex search logics, and more.

Controlled Vocabulary

A controlled vocabulary is a list of terms which are to be used for indexing at retrieval; for example, keyword lists, subject headings, classifications, taxonomies, thesauri, authority lists and others. The idea of 'control' is variable according to natural language used. In contrast to this, is an uncontrolled vocabulary where full-text , freely chosen keywords and tags.

Friday, 31 July 2015



AACR description:

AACR2 rules based on IFLA principles

Based on information in the item, form the title page
Use of outside information such as, dates of author's birth and death; to check the real name of an author using a pen name

AACR2 rules aim at describing documents: succinctly, accurately and consistently, though they are detailed and complex.

Three 'levels of description' allowed
Differ according to how much information is included
First level: Simplest, for small libraries
Second level: intermediate, for most libraries
Third level: complex, for national and research libraries - heavily detailed

First level description includes at least these elements:
# Title
# Statement of responsibility
# Edition
# Type of publication
# Publishing details
# Extent of item
# Notes
# Standard number




Copyright is a strange word in the room, what we really need to understand is the nature of copyright as a property law. Much of what this property law main focus on Creative works more emphasis is placed on the nature of protection and where to find out about it. We need to identify appropriate protection for different aspects of a Creative works. We need to know where to look to find out the details of protection available, and finally, we also need to understand in outline how copyright protection is realised respecting various types of information provision.


Metadata is one of those strange terms to someone has a mysterious fascination unless you are familiar with definition accompanied by what it actually does, it will continue to remain alien to those who encounter this term.

Those of us who have had an opportunity to become familiar with this term, literally, Metadata can be best understood as data being about data described as short, structured and standardised or consistent descriptions of information resources. The idea of Metadata has been around for along time, since the mid-19th century, amongst library cataloguing rules.

Metadata provide short, structured and consistent descriptions of information resources which at best indicate catalogued records. It could be further described as surrogates imitating the actual items used. The main purpose for Metadata is to identify, retrieve, use and manage information resources. It could also be said, digitising information resources into Metadata records makes it easier for retrieval, finding required items by searching or browsing, display, deciding on whether an item is useful; legal status of items; records management or whether it can be shared and exchanged.

Metadata falls into two types: descriptive Metadata and Subject Metadata.

Descriptive Metadata is description of the item itself, it's title, author, date of publication or creation, physical form, etc.

Descriptive Metadata asks lots of questions about the item is:
What is this called?
Who wrote it?
How old is it?
How big is it?
What kind of thing is it
Where is it?

Descriptive Metadata is very detail oriented its not happy just being about content it wants to know what exactly is it unlike subject Metadata who satisfied in telling their story.

Both types of Metadata must conform  to the structured and standardised standards.

Subject Metadata describes the content meaning, describes what the item is about.

Subject Metadata uses controlled terms, classification Codes, subject headings,  or controlled terminology for example, terms captured from titles and abstracts.

Subject Metadata is very intrusive, it wants to know what item is actually about, the content is plays a major role in telling the story of the item.

Metadata standards importantly govern the content and elements of records in how the same information is presented in the same way.

Machine Readable Cataloguing (MARC) is an exchange format for Metadata records created according to the AACR2 and RDA cataloguing codes.

Dublin Core (DC) is another standard of web Metadata format, which comprises of 15 elements or fields such as, title, creator, subject, and format.

Learning Object Metadata (LOM) this standard holds Metadata for educational resources at all levels of granularity.

Text Encoding Initiative ( TEI) is a standard representation of texts in digital form.

Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard ( METS )

International Standard for Archival Description (General) (ISAD  (G)) 

Visual Resources Association ( VRA ) Core

Data Protection

What is the aims of data protection? My believe concerning data protection is to understand the nature and extent of data protection rights and how data protection awareness is applied to other legislation.
Other important questions we need to ask how is does data protection benefits society, how to apply data protection principles to use of information systems, how to apply exemptions to the data protection act.

So what are the data protection principles to apply to data protection:

1. Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully and, in particular, shall not be processed unless - (a) at least one of the conditions in Schedule 2 is met, and (b) in the case of sensitive personal data, at least one of the conditions in Schedule 3 is also met.

2. Personal data shall be obtained only for one or more specified and lawful purposes, and shall not be further processed in any manner incompatible with that purpose or those purposes.

3. Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purpose or purposes for which they are processed.

4. Personal data shall be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date.

5. Personal data processed for any purpose or purposes shall not be kept for longer than is necessary for that purpose or purposes.

6. Personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects under this Act.

7. Appropriate technical and organisational measures shall be taken against unauthorized or unlawful processing of personal data and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, personal data.

8. Personal data shall not be transferred to a country or territory outside the European Economic Area

Information Organisation

One of the fundamental aspects of the information sciences is how we organise large amounts of information and information resources. In reality, Information needs to be classified and labeled is essential to identify what these objects are and how we distinguish known items after they have been classified methodically.

The old tools and techniques are being adapted to the modern information environment. These old tools as we referred to them, for information organisation, are slowly changing the tools challenging long established theories and concepts once considered valid.

The theory of classification and indexing reinforced several main tools used today that has its origins in the nineteenth century.  The were developed to provide bibliographic control of printed materials; to record, identify and make accessible all the intellectual output of humanity, as expressed in recorded knowledge. Digital material, rapidly expanding, are now making these materials more accessible.

Dramatic changes to tools for information organisation, effect how documents are created and disseminated adapted to automated methods to become current tools in Information organisation. 'Information organisation' or 'knowledge organisation'. These terms are treated as synonymous, however we need to remind ourselves about the purpose of why this is being done to understand the structure of knowledge, practically, arranging documents physically on shelves and virtually as digital documents. Questions we need to ask ourselves here is single classification possible? How do we assign objects to categories? How do our mental concepts relate to physical things? How distinct can objects still be given the same name?

What we forget to understand about all organisations of information and knowledge, there is a great deal of theory underlying the foundations of information organisation or knowledge organisation; whether classification schemes for documents, scientific taxonomies of plants, animals, rocks, stars, and so on.

Five theoretical concepts underlying many aspects of information organisation including controlled vocabulary; facet analysis; Metadata; ontology; and semantic web.

Open Access: What is it?

Open Access has become one of these popular buzz words recently, similar to social media, but unlike social media, open access maintains its mystic allure unless you happen to be one of those professionals who actually work in this exciting field we now call 'Open Access'.

So, what is Open Access or OA? Open Access has become the gatekeeper to all research creating knowledge that all hold in high esteem. It means unrestricted online access to research, which is mainly for peer-reviewed academic journals, but now includes other research like theses, book chapters, and monographs.

Open access falls into two types which are accompanied by peculiar sounding names, namely, gratis open access refers to online access free of charge, and libre open access refers to online access free of charge with some user privilege rights or additional usage rights.

Additional usage rights are often granted through various specific known as Creative Commons Licenses.

Gratis open access or OA is simply free online access while libre OA free online access including some additional rights to re-use material.

Monday, 22 June 2015

Digital footprint as The New Panopticon

The new Panopticon is our digital footprint for what really impact on it is our constant desire to be watched matched by a constant desire to be seen given that this needy desire clearly demonstrates how society is implicit in this narcissistic online cannibalism we all call social media.

Our desires for content under surveillance, as well as other users content is becoming uncontrollably alarming, our desires constantly drive our anxieties to engage with social media websites, in ways, show a preference for blogging as some literature report only a minority blog given it require one to hold a consistent audience.

Our desires characterise our animality anxieties to an of constantly needing to be fed for the sole purpose of generating information. The digital footprint Panopticon is one such desire where it is both mobile and dynamically designed to keep us constantly moving towards a virtual Panopticon of total transparency while policy and regulations remain ever more invisible to us.

From here, different Panopticons begin actively manoeuvring simultaneously together while we remain ignorant about its true intent.
Unless users start transgressing policy regulations. This moves away from Foucault and Bentham model of a Panopticon of just being a physical building has now become anything digital in reality.

We impact our digital footprint physically by touching any smart device with a virtual keyboard, from downloading to uploading images and file documents. In social media blogging we add content within every context of blog entry post, when we visit and read a blog post, we add comments then we add more to the digital footprint when we decide to follow other student bloggers.

Diaspora African Caribbean Supplementary Schools

Diaspora African Caribbean Supplementary schools - innovative ways to attract students.

Organisation and structure
Voluntary staff
Networked Supplementary schools to improve best practice
Parental engagement and parental advocacy programmes
Create education alternatives to support black children

Resisting racism: race inequality and the black Supplementary school movement published by Trentham Books, the Institute of Education Press. The Voice, January 8th - 14th, 2015

Independent Education
Purpose of school: indoctrination and brainwashing learning to participate in their society.

Home schooling from a black African Caribbean perspective.

Dr Kehinde Andrews - Senior Lecturer in Sociology at Birmingham City University.

National Army Museum's Ghanaian collection

National Army Museum's Ghanaian collection in Forest Gate - During Community Hall 13 - 16pm.

Saturday 6th June 2015

Focus on the relationship between Ghanaians and their past, present and future within the UK.

Understand how the Ghanaian community feels about the objects and their history.

Their objects focus mainly on the Anglo - Asante Wars and range from military weapons to spiritual objects.

The Ghanaian community input is key to the museum's understanding and classification of these objects.

NAM (National Army Museum) is looking for people who have a connection to Ghana and want to promote the Cultural heritage of the nation.

Friday, 30 January 2015

Home Manager Role

What does a Home Manager's role entail?

Well here is a definitive list to sum up this broad job responsibilities:

[1] Food
[2] Health
[3] Clothing
[4] Learning
[5] Entertainment
[6] General Adviser
[7] People Management
[8] Interpersonal Communication
[9] Multi tasking responsibilities
[10] Budgeting
[11] Domestic Engineer

Open Access: Where Are We Now?

Panel discussion (23rd October 2014 @ 19:02) opened up the debate on

Why is open access is so important?
What does OA (open access) actually mean for users who want to conduct academic research?

Academics giving away their work while publishers increasingly hike up their profit revenues which in turn compromise equality.

Why do we care about OA?
Social justice - not all of us can participate in an open access system which mostly comes down to economics. Is it only just economics?

What is meant by OA?
OA is a term that most publishers sell subscriptions depending on who has access to those resources much else relies on which academic institutions one belongs to is the determining factor here. OA is only freely available online unless access has additional usage rights.

What is a journal article?
We still reliant on 17th century model payment models. One should be able open their work to the public. 2020 open access established 97% articles could have been OA. Academics are under pressure to conform to OA.

How does OA affect independent information professionals working on the behalf of their client companies?

Access to OA content, JISC - provide fibre network

Is there a possibility academics might switch to publish their paper through a free blog website?

Two economies: tenure and greed prestige factors
Senior researchers benefit from a flawed system only to operate in a safe environment.

OA is fairly established, aware and afraid of it. Ways to test OA to make it more accessible to everyone. As a publishers need to constantly challenge themselves. Production value - cost money for top quality.

Why is OA important?
Collaboration and a need to do this together.

Young academics are afraid to share OA, a need to include institutional repository available online.

Digital preservation - readable; difficulty with access published works; published article work weekly.

Other forms of documents and OA: Institutional backing
Bad research can be promoted to the detriment of those seeking quality research material.

Where are we now?
Transitional phase, Academics been ignoring the challenges of OA

Characteristics of OA has been anti-corporate model more evidence of traditional publishers are doing well in OA. Strain of university budgets not yet been realized since commercial publisher continue to cause higher education institutions to haemorrhage.

Different OA models - multiple bundle is the tipping point payments system.