One of the fundamental aspects of the information sciences is how we organise large amounts of information and information resources. In reality, Information needs to be classified and labeled is essential to identify what these objects are and how we distinguish known items after they have been classified methodically.
The old tools and techniques are being adapted to the modern information environment. These old tools as we referred to them, for information organisation, are slowly changing the tools challenging long established theories and concepts once considered valid.
The theory of classification and indexing reinforced several main tools used today that has its origins in the nineteenth century. The were developed to provide bibliographic control of printed materials; to record, identify and make accessible all the intellectual output of humanity, as expressed in recorded knowledge. Digital material, rapidly expanding, are now making these materials more accessible.
Dramatic changes to tools for information organisation, effect how documents are created and disseminated adapted to automated methods to become current tools in Information organisation. 'Information organisation' or 'knowledge organisation'. These terms are treated as synonymous, however we need to remind ourselves about the purpose of why this is being done to understand the structure of knowledge, practically, arranging documents physically on shelves and virtually as digital documents. Questions we need to ask ourselves here is single classification possible? How do we assign objects to categories? How do our mental concepts relate to physical things? How distinct can objects still be given the same name?
What we forget to understand about all organisations of information and knowledge, there is a great deal of theory underlying the foundations of information organisation or knowledge organisation; whether classification schemes for documents, scientific taxonomies of plants, animals, rocks, stars, and so on.
Five theoretical concepts underlying many aspects of information organisation including controlled vocabulary; facet analysis; Metadata; ontology; and semantic web.